Further reading

  1. Impedance: Here are some notes on fourier expansions and impedance.
    Some resources for learning more about these topics are:
  2. Circuit equations: a useful note from Texas Instruments, that illustrates the use of Kirchoff's laws and Thevenin's theorem.
  3. Moore's Law: a collection of articles from IEEE Spectrum, written in 2015 for the 50th anniversary of Moore's law.
  4. Power spectra: Here are some notes and code for exploring power spectra of signals.
  5. Op Amps for Everyone, by Ron Mancini.


  • Qucs is a circuit simulator. Here is a clear and simple introduction to Qucs.
  • A useful note on prototyping techniques: MT-100
  • PyVISA is an extremely useful python module, which enables a computer to communicate with physical instruments (e.g., a TDS 210 oscilloscope) using Python.
  • Kicad is a tool to lay out printed circuit boards. It may be useful for your final projects.
  • Arduino IDE is useful for programming your Arduino microcontroller boards.

General resources