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What “Really” Happens when Gluons Collide?

Cachazo The Large Hadron Collider at CERN smashes protons against protons. In these collisions, sometimes a gluon from one proton scatters off a gluon from the other proton, producing one or more new gluons. What happens in between depends on who you ask! Most people would say that Feynman gave us the answer in the form of his famous diagrams involving virtual particles with real momenta. However, in the past decade, physicists have been developing stranger and stranger descriptions. I will explain why and introduce some of these, such as strings moving in twistor space, real particles with complex momenta, volumes of combinatorial objects such as the Amplituhedron and points interacting on a Riemann sphere.